- examples and/or illustrations
- other useful sources
- The act of alienating.
- The state of being alienated.
- A transfer of the title of property by one person to another; conveyance.
- The state of being withdrawn or isolated from the objective world, as through indifference or disaffection.
- The lack of correlation in the variation of two measurable variates over a population.
Dictionary.com. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/alienation?s=t (Accessed on October 7th, 2016).
- A turning away; estrangement.
- The state of being an outsider or the feeling of being isolated, as from society.
- A state in which a person’s feelings are inhibited so that eventually both the self and the external world seem unreal.
- The transfer of property, as by conveyance or will, into the ownership of another.
- The right of an owner to dispose of his property.
Collins English Dictionary. Alienation. Retrieved from http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/alienation?s=t (Accessed October 7th 2016).
- The state or experience of being alienated.
- In Marxist theory. A condition of workers in a capitalist economy, resulting from a lack of identity with the products of their labour and a sense of being controlled or exploited.
- Psychiatry. A state of depersonalization or loss of identity in which the self seems unreal, thought to be caused by difficulties in relating to society and the resulting prolonged inhibition of emotion.
- Theatre. An effect, sought by some dramatists, whereby the audience remains objective and does not identify with the actors.
- The transfer of the ownership of property rights.
The Oxford Online Dictionaries. Retrieved from http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/alienation?q=alienation (Accessed October 7th, 2016).
Examples and/or Illustrations
“[…] a complex and contested label is transformed by bureaucratic and regulatory processes, which both reproduce and reflect a political discourse of alienation and resistance to refugee claims” (emphasis added, Zetter, 2007: 188).
“These perceptions ranged from feelings of uncertainty and unfamiliarity about being in a new environment to feelings of isolation, alienation, rejection and being discrimination against” (emphasis added, McFarlane, Kaplan and Lawrence, 2011: 664).
Other Useful Sources
Calhoun, C. (Ed). (2002). Alienation. In Dictionary of Social Sciences. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Egerton, F. (2010). Alienation and its discontents. European Journal of International Relations, 17(3), 453-474.
Ehlers, A., Macrcker, A., and Boos, A. (2000). Posttraumatic stress disorder following political imprisonment: the role of mental defeat, alienation and perceived permanent change. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 45-55.
Langman, L. and Kalekin-Fishman, D. (Eds.). (2006). The evolution of alienation: trauma, promise and the millennium. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Sayers, S. (2011). Marx and Alienation: Essays on Hegelian Themes. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Schwartz, D.C. (2007). Political Alienation and Political Behaviour. Piscataway, New Jersey: Aldine Transaction.
Scott, J. and Marshall, G. (2009). Alienation. In A Dictionary of Sociology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Skempton, S. (2010). Alienation after Derrida. London; New York: Continuum.
Trummers, L. (2011). Explaining the willingness of public professionals to implement new policies: a policy alienation framework. International Review of Administrative Sciences, 77(3), 555-581.
McFarlane, C.A., Kaplan, I. and Lawrence, J.A. (2011). Psychosocial Indicators of Wellbeing for Resettled Refugee Children and Youth: Conceptual and Developmental Directions. Child Indicators Research, 4, 647-677.
Zetter, R. (2007). More Labels, Fewer Refugees: Remaking the Refugee Label in an Era of Globalization. Journal of Refugee Studies, 20(2), 172-192.